International Journal of Modern Plant and Animal Sciences
ISSN: 2327-3364 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 7 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 7 No. 1, 2020

General, Reduced and Restricted Selection Indices for Genetic Improvement of Some Growth Traits in Zaraibi Goats in Egypt
M.M. El-Moghazy, El-Awady, H. G. and A.A. El-Raghi
 PP. 1 - 15
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ABSTRACT: A total of 2998, 2752, 2713, 2604, 2507 and 2009 records for body weights at birth (BW), 30 day (W30), 60 day (W60), weaning (WW), 120 day (W120) and 180 day (W180), respectively were collected over a period of 8 years from 2005 to 2012 from Zaraibi herd raised in El-Serw Experimental Station, located in the North Eastern part of the Nile Delta, belongs to Animal Production Research Institute (APRI), Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for growth traits in addition to construct selection indices based on net profit as a relative economic weight for selecting Zaraibi kids. Genetic parameters were obtained with Derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure using the MTDFREML program by fitting three different animal models. Direct heritability estimates ranged from 0.23 to 0.43, 0.28 to 0.41, 0.20 to 0.31, 0.17 to 0.34, 0.15 to 0.32 and 0.24 to 0.28 for BW, W30, W60, WW, W120 and W180, respectively. Maternal heritability estimate was 0.21 for BW and decreased to be 0.07 for W180. Also, the fraction of variance due to maternal permanent environmental effects decreased from 0.12 for BW to 0.05 for W180. Correlations between direct and maternal genetic were negative for BW, W120 and W180 and positive for W30, W60 and WW. Thirteen selection indices were constructed by incorporating different combinations from investigated growth traits according different animal models. General selection index was adjudged as the best selection index and the correlation between the index and aggregate genotype varied between 0.547 and 0.631 and through this index could be improve all traits together as it gave the highest expected genetic gains. For reduced selection indices, the correlation between the index and aggregate genotype ranged from 0.512 to 0.630, 0.448 to 0.624 and 0.455 to 0.547 for model 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Completely restricted selection index consider the best choice for selection against the increase of birth weight in order to reduce dystocia cases. Generally, there are no discrepancies between the values of expected genetic per generation for different studied models and the spearman rank correlation coefficients estimates between the animals on the bases of the original index were positive which indicated that the order of ranking by the investigated models were in the same directions.

Effect of Protected Soybean Meal Protein on Rumen Parameters, Blood Parameters and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rahmani Lambs
El-Moghazy M.M.; M.Y. El-Ayek and H. A. Areda
 PP. 16 - 32
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ABSTRACT: This paper is to study the effect of heat protected soybean meal protein diets on rumen parameters, blood parameters as well as carcass characteristics in growing lambs. Animals were fed in groups for 120 days feeding period on the same three experimental diets. Control fed diet containing soybean meal (15%) without treatment as consists of concentrate feed mixture (CFM) + clover hay (CH). The T1 fed diet containing (50% soybean meal protected + 50% soybean meal unprotected) as consists of CFM + CH. The T2 fed diet containing 100% soybean meal protected as consists of CFM + CH. The obtained results indicated that rumen PH and NH3-N concentrations were lower in T2 than T1 and control group, while TVFA and microbial protein yield were higher in T2 than T1 and control group. Heat treatment had not significant effect on all blood hematological and biochemical parameters under study except white blood cell, creatinine, total lipid and cholesterol showed significant differences. Moreover, heat treatment resulted in improve all carcass characteristics may be due to the improvements in digestibility and feed conversion for groups fed treated soybean meal compared to control group. In connection to chemical composition of meat, heat treatment had not significant effect on EE and Ash contents, while the significant effect was observed on CP, ranged from 75.37 to 77.99, 9.85 to 10.30 and 3.69 to 3.92% for CP, EE and Ash, respectively. The improvements in CP in chemical composition of meat were 0.97 and 2.62 for T1 and T2, respectively. On the light of the above mentioned results, this study recommends the use of heat treatment as a protection method for SBM protein diets in growing lambs at 100% protected soybean meal protein.

Macroinvertebrate Population Dynamics of an Urban Lentic Ecosystem of Kashmir Himalaya
Mohd Yaseen Gudoo, Mohammad Farooq Mir, Anuja Gupta
 PP. 33 - 48
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ABSTRACT: An extensive ecological study was conducted on famous Dal Lake situated in the heart of the Kashmir valley from March, 2015 to February, 2016 in order to assess the physico-chemical features and macroinvertebrate population dynamics of lake. During the investigation a total of 24 macroinvertebrate species were recorded. The mean population density of macroinvertebrates was estimated 1410 ind./m2. Arthropods were found to be most dominant with relative contribution of 42% followed by Molluscs with relative contribution of 35% and Annelids with relative contribution of 23%. The study revealed that water quality, abundance and architecture of macrophytes and nature of bottom sediment plays a significant role in determining the diversity and distribution of macroinvertebrates in lake- ecosystem. pH, electrical conductivity, nitrates, total phosphorous, and chloride content depicts alkaline, eutrophic and organically polluted nature of lake waters. Further, it was observed that undesirable anthropogenic activities like sewage loading, waste dumping and agricultural run-off are emerging as most detrimental threats to aquatic ecosystems, which need to be mitigated immediately to maintain the health and vigor of lake.

Salient Features of Diversity of Weeds Found in Maiyama Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria
Dharmendra Singh, Mustapha Umar Mungadi and Muhammad Musa Tanko
 PP. 49 - 54
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ABSTRACT: The present study is outcome of salient features of diversity of weeds studies in varied localities of the Maiyama Local Government area (LGA) of Kebbi State, Nigeria. The studies of weeds were regularized into varied localities of the Maiyama local government area from August 2018 to July 2019.The sample of weeds were collected randomly in Fadama land dry land. The collection has been found to be over spread 25 weed species and 13families. The families of the diversity of plants identify in this study area were: Asteraceae, Capparaceae, Fabaceae, Pedaliaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Tiliaceae, each have one species. Amaranthaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Cyperaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, each have two species. Euphorbiaceae has 3 species and Poaceae has 4 species. The majority of the plant species were collected from the farm, while some were collected along the road. All weeds are reported according to their field numbers along with their botanical names, local names and localities.

Utilization of Camel’s Foot (Piliostigma reticulatum) (Hochst.) Pods among Ruminant Farmers in the Semi-arid Environment of Kebbi State, Nigeria
Muftau, M. A., B .S Malami, S. A Maigandi and H .A Gwandu
 PP. 55 - 64
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ABSTRACT: A survey was conducted in the three senatorial districts of Kebbi State comprising of a local government per senatorial district with 5 villages each located within the semi-arid region to investigate the use of Camel’s foot (Kalgo) pods among the ruminant farmers. A structured questionnaire was administered to 150 farmers within the study areas. The data collected was analyzed by using simple statistical tools such as frequency counts and percentages. The results revealed the age groups of the majority (38.36%) of the respondents were between 21-30 years. Male were the majority (94%) of the respondents encountered and 69.18% were married and 79.06% had some form of education with 33.11% having Quranic education. Majority (62.84%) of the respondents reared cattle, sheep and goats with a flock size and years of experience in livestock management between 21-35 animals and 10-20 years respectively. The feed resources used during the dry season revealed that the most (37.33%) of the farmers engaged their animals on free grazing/browsing system and about 28% used concentrates and supplements to sustain their animals. Majority of the respondents (50%) offered Kalgo parts in dried form to feed their animals with sheep and goats (48.57%) preferring Kalgo parts most. The part of the Kalgo mostly preferred by ruminants indicated the pods are mostly (48.57%) preferred and 14.28% prefers the leaves alone. Kalgo parts is obtained for usage in the dry season as agreed by all (100%) the respondents with about 50.39% covering a distance of 1-2km from their homes/farms before obtaining Kalgo parts for usage. Majority of the respondents (75.17%) obtained Kalgo parts by self and all the respondents in the study areas agreed to the fact that Kalgo is naturally occurring plant. The results obtained in this work revealed that Kalgo plant is a permanent and important browse indigenous to the semi-arid environments of Kebbi State, Nigeria.