International Journal of Modern Chemistry
ISSN: 2165-0128 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 12 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 12 No. 1, 2020

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Lavandula angustifolia
Oko Emmanuel, Godwin, Peter A. Egwaikhide
 PP. 1 - 12
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ABSTRACT: This present study deals with the quantitative and qualitative phytochemical screening, the antimicrobial properties and thin layer chromatography of Lavandula angustifolia leaves extracts. These were achieved using the cold maceration method of extraction involving hexane, water (aqueous) and ethanol, to ensure that a wide polarity range of components are extracted. Alkaloid, phenol, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, glycosides and steroids were observed present in the leaves extract of this plant. Quantitative analysis was also conducted to determine the percentage composition of some of the secondary metabolites, and the antimicrobial sensitivity test was carried out using the well diffusion method to determine the susceptibility of the plant. It was interesting to note that the hexane extract of L. angustifolia have great potential of been used as a phytomedicine especially against the deadly salmonella typhi associated diseases e.g fever, malaria and typhoid at a better extent than the commercially available erythromycin drug which was used as control. This plant extracts were also discovered to be very active against pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at great and encouraging degrees.

Determination of Biodegradability of Polyethylene-based Waste Material Melt-Blended with Gum Arabic
B. Magaji, M. S. Zubairu, A.U Birnin-Yauri, B.Z. Jega, A. Muhammad, and H. Aminu
 PP. 13 - 25
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ABSTRACT: In this study, gum Arabic and low density polyethylene have been used to form polymer blend. Low density polyethylene was melt/blended together with the gum Arabic using different weight percent mixing formulations namely PE9GA1, PE8GA2, PE7GA3, PE6GA4, PE5GA5, and PE10 respectively. Physical Characterization (such as water uptake, thickness swelling, chemical resistance, and flammability) shows that the best results were exhibited by the Polyethylene (6g) and gum Arabic (4g) i.e. (PE6GA4) formulation. Additionally this formulation revealed that more than 43% of the polymer blend was biodegraded through soil burial approach within one month. This research implies that incorporating gum Arabic into polyethylene could potentially improve its biodegradation.

Quantum Chemical Studies on Silicon Tetrafluoride and Its Protonated Analogues
Emmanuel E. Etim, Sulaiman Adeoye Olagboye, Oko Emmanuel Godwin, Irene Mfoniso Atiatah
 PP. 26 - 45
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ABSTRACT: For every heteronuclear molecule, protonation can occur at more than one site thus giving rise to more than one proton affinity. Experimentally, only one proton affinity (PA) value is reported for a molecule and the experiment does not specify the site for the protonation. In the present work, quantum chemical calculations are carried out on SiF4 and its possible protonated analogues (HF4Si+ and HSiF4+) by employing several computational chemistry methods including the MP2 method with 6-311++G** and cc-pVDZ basis sets, the HF, B3LYP and the CCSD methods with the 6-311++G** basis set and the Gaussian 04 (G4) compound method with the aim of determining the protonated analogue that corresponds to the experimentally determined PA value. Also, bond distances, bond angles, rotational constants, dipole moments, infrared spectroscopy and HOMO-LUMO energies are calculated for the three molecular species; SiF4, HF4Si+ and HSiF4+. From the results, the experimentally reported PA value is found to correspond to the protonated analogue in which the proton is attached to one of the fluorine atoms (HSiF4+) instead of the one in which the proton is attached to the silicon atom. Except for the HOMO-LUMO energies which are best predicted by the B3LYP method, other parameters are found to be accurately predicted by the G4 compound method in comparison with available experimental results. These findings have not only aided in providing the needed information which was lacking in literature about SiF4 especially its protonated analogues, but these results also find applications in industries (such as in catalysis and synthesis) and in the chemical exploration of the interstellar medium (ISM).

Advancements in the Catalytic Acid Spray Method as a New Process for Carbon Nanostructures Scale Production
M. Fathy, A. A. Ahamed, H. Ibrahim, M. G. Sadek, V. Ibrahim, R. Kellow, Y. Barakat, S. Abdel-Fattah
 PP. 46 - 60
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ABSTRACT: This review summarizes results concerning the greatest utility of carbon coating on the latest developed area of photocatalyst particles and electrode substances for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries as well as various metals and metal oxides. The most eye-catching features of these carbon-based coatings are their capability to increase the surface of medium besides heavily loaded components via imparting several significant material enhancements to the surface of components to improve their efficiency and perform through reduced lubrication regimes. Furthermore, the emphasis is placed on the investigation of the advanced manufacturing techniques for producing carbon structures with economically competitive large-scale productions.

Studies on Tidal Changes, Physicochemical Parameters, Suspended Particulate Matter and Nutrient Concentration in the Great Kwa River, Nigeria
Agwupuye, J.A., Umana, I.M., Edodi, D.I.
 PP. 61 - 76
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ABSTRACT: Studies on the variation of nutrient concentration, suspended particulate matter and physicochemical parameters due to tidal oscillation in the Great Kwa River estuary was carried out in May to September, 2019 using standard analytical methods. The result of the variations in the nutrient concentrations, suspended particulate matter and the physico-chemical parameters were shown to have the following range of values; ammonium (0.002-0.017)mg/L, phosphate (0.001-0.009)mg/L, nitrate (0.001-0.0019)mg/L. The influence of tidal changes on physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, conductivity, pH, salinity, turbidity, total dissolved solid, total suspended solid were found to be; 4.0-8.9mg/L for turbidity, 0.0001-0.002FTU for salinity, 6.20-8.10 for pH, 27-29.9ºC for temperature, 0.0006-0.001µs/cm for conductivity 0.001-0-0035mg/L for total dissolved solid (TDS) and 0.0035-0.005mg/L for total suspended solid (TSS). The variation in nutrient is mainly attributed to the re-suspension of sediment, tidal mixing, river discharge, sea water intrusion, displacement of intertidal flats and mangroves swamps caused by tidal activities.

Quantum Chemical Studies on Furan and Its Isomers
Emmanuel E. Etim, Oko Emmanuel, Godwin , Sambo, Ifiok Fridy, Sulaiman Adeoye Olagboye
 PP. 77 - 98
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ABSTRACT: Advances in computational chemistry have greatly increased its effectiveness and attractiveness as an emerging adjunct to experimental chemistry but also as an independent research field. This work studied some basic parameters of the fourteen members of the C4H4O isomeric group using the Gaussian 4 (G4) compound model with the Gaussian 09 suit of programs. The results obtained are then compared with experimental data where available. The parameters; enthalpy of formation, rotational constants, IR spectra and frequencies, bond distances and angles, and dipole moment were obtained from the optimized stable geometries of the isomers. From the results, furan was found to be the most stable isomer of the group with enthalpy of formation value of -9.261 kcal/mol. Because of it high stability, it is also found to be the most experimentally investigated isomer of the group. The experimentally reported parameters are found to be in good agreement with the computationally determined ones. The good agreement between the calculated parameters for the isomers and the available experimental value stresses the reliable of the results (at the G4 level) for systems with no experimental data. The importance of the results and other possible applications of the experimentally less studied isomers of the group are discussed.

Dye Sorption Mechanism: A Review Studies on Isotherm, Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Dye Sorption
Abdulsalam Khadijat, Amodu Bayonle, Fakorede Olatunji, Adams Abdullahi
 PP. 99 - 116
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ABSTRACT: The study of various isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamics models gives an insight into the mechanisms of sorption of dyes. The analysis of equilibrium adsorption data by fitting them to different isotherm models is an important step in finding a suitable model that can be used for design purposes. The study of adsorption dynamics describes the solute uptake rate and evidently this rate controls the residence time of adsorbate uptake at the solid-solution interface while Thermodynamics is used to evaluate parameters such as free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) change of adsorption. This research gives different isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics models, their significance, their applicability, how to calculate their constants and how to interpret them.

Electrochemical Behavior of Quench-treated Low Carbon Steel in 0.5 H2SO4 Medium Containing Simvastatin Drug as Corrosion Inhibitor Using Potentiodynamic and Evans Techniques
Adel H. Ali
 PP. 117 - 140
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ABSTRACT: The rule of this paper is to study the possibility of using the Simvastatin pharmaceutical drug compound as a corrosion inhibitor that can have a decisive effect of decreasing on metallic corrosion rate and adsorbed on the metal surface by using potentiodynamic polarization and Evans techniques. In this regard, we simultaneously present an overview of Simvastatin compound performance, as a corrosion inhibitor in 10% ethanol, 0.5N H2SO4 (10A5H), and with presence different concentrations of the drug. The potentiodynamic polarization and Evans technique are studied the LCH in a different medium to clarify the effect of medium on the corrosion processes, and the effect of polarization on the orientation of the inhibitor molecule to the metal surface. The surface examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). All surface examinations confirm formation thin film adsorbed on the metal surface, which discussed by the mechanism of the adsorption processes on the polarized metal surface.