International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety
ISSN: 2165-896X (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 7 No. 2or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 7 No. 2, 2016

Microbiological Quality of Raw Milk and Associated Health Risk in the Hyderabad Region of Pakistan
Tahmina Shah, Qurban Ali Shah, Jan Muhammad Shah, Muhammad Asif Arain, Muhammad Saeed, Farma Ali Siyal, Rab Nawaz Soomro and Sarfraz A. Brohi
 PP. 61 - 77
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the microbial quality and associated health risk of raw milk stored at surrounding intermediaries of Hyderabad Pakistan. The microbial quality assessment of marketed raw milk was undertaking by evaluating 120 raw milk samples from selling points i.e. at farm level, dairies and retailer level each containing (n=40) samples in Hyderabad city. All samples were evaluated for total viable (TV), coliforms and yeasts-molds counts. TV Count appeared significantly (P<0.05) high in milk stored before sale at large dairy farms compared to that of milk at small dairy farms. Total count in dairy farms milk samples (1.08x105±3.27x103cfu/ml) was comparatively lower than that of retailer shops (1.30x105±5.80x102cfu/ml) and dairies (1.18 x 105 ± 6.56 x 102 cfu/ml). Moreover, total viable count of milk samples obtained from dairy farms and dairies was non-significant but significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of retailer shops. The average coliform count of retailer shops milk samples (5.06 x 104 ± 8.86 x 103 cfu/ml) was comparatively higher (P<0.05) than that of dairies (4.59 x 104 ± 6.91 x 102 cfu/ml) and dairy farm milk samples (4.24 x 104 ± 7.60 x 103 cfu/ml), respectively. While the coliform count in all milk samples of different intermediaries was significantly different (P<0.05) from each other; Yeasts and molds count of retailer shops milk samples (2.17 x 104 ± 5.22 x 102 cfu/ml) was significantly high followed by dairies (1.94 x 104 ± 3.86 x 103 cfu/ml) and dairy farm milk samples (1.80 x 104 ± 4.42 x 103 cfu/ml). It can be concluded that the storage condition of raw milk in the study area is of poor microbiological quality. This highlights the urgent need to adapt good sanitation practices and active monitoring from production through the distribution chain to the consumer.

Simultaneous Detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis by Multiplex PCR Method in Poultry Meat Samples
Hashem Gharedaghi, Golnaz Asaadi Tehrani, Razzagh Mahmoudi and Hossein Gholampour
 PP. 78 - 87
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to adapt the multiplex PCR technique on the rapid and direct identification of the presence of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in poultry meat samples. Specific primers for multiplex PCR amplification of the, hlyA, actA, ttrC and sdfI genes were designed to allow simultaneous detection of Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enteritidis respectively. The implementation of the standard technique using positive controls was successfully adapted. Following enrichment culturing for 20–24h at 37°C in TSBYE, the samples were subjected to for DNA extraction. Four fragments of the expected sizes were amplified in a single reaction and visualized in all of the samples inoculated with ≤ 10 CFUg-1. Results can be obtained in approximately after 30 hours. The results of our research for simultaneous detection of L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis in poultry meat samples showed that the mPCR is able to detect Salmonella enteritidis in 4.76% and Listeria monocytogenes in 6.34 % and both of them in 1.58% of samples. The multiplex PCR is a potentially powerful technique for rapid and sensitive co-detection of both pathogens in foods and other types of samples.

Identification of Beta-Lactamase Resistance Gene in Salmonella Isolated from Clinical Samples
Razzagh Mahmoudi, Kumarss Amini, Ata Kaboudari, SeyedehFaezehRahimiPir-Mahalleh, Babak Pakbin
 PP. 88 - 97
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ABSTRACT: Salmonella is one of the intestinal bacteria, gram negative, facultative anaerobic and obligate parasite, which causes many diseases in animals and is food poisoning in human. Bacterial serovars are different in terms of pathogenicity in humans and animals. The aim of this study the beta lactamase resistance gene of Salmonella from clinical samples has isolated. In this evaluation, human subjects of Imam Khomeini hospital and several private medical laboratories in the city were collected and after enrichment with bla DNA isolation genes were evaluated by multiplex PCR technique. S. Typhimurium was isolated from all samples. S. typhimurium strains diagnostic molecular tests are very accurate and can be implemented quickly. Evaluation of the genes mentioned in various sources is recommended.

Nutrition Values and Biological Activities of Bamboo Shoots and Leaves
Jiao-Jiao Zhang, Meng liu, Ya Li, Tong Zhou, Dong-Ping Xu, Hua-Bin Li
 PP. 98 - 108
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ABSTRACT: Bamboo shoots could be served as food, and extract of bamboo leaves could be used as food additive. The bamboo shoot is an ideal vegetable and a delicacy because of its low in fat, high in dietary fiber and rich in mineral content. The extract of bamboo leaves could reduce the formation of acrylamide in fried food effectively. Besides, the extracts of bamboo shoots and leaves possessed several beneficial bioactivities, such as antioxidant, antibacterial and antiallergic effects, which are related to the nutrient elements and phytochemicals (such as polyphenols). Bamboo shoots and leaves might have a potential application prospect in functional food, medicines and food additives.

Nitrate and Nitrite in Foods
Li-Rong Cao, Jiao-Jiao Zhang, Chun-Lu Gan, Wei-Wei Chen, Mei Cheng, Ting-Ting Zhao, Ya Li
 PP. 109 - 125
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ABSTRACT: Nitrate and nitrite are widely used in food processing industry, especially used in cured meat products. The nitrite added to food could generate multiple functions, including the formation of characteristic color and flavor as well as antimicrobial activity, thus extending the shelf life of foods. However, the safety concerns of nitrate and nitrite as well as the nitrosoamines, which could be converted from nitrite, have also been raised. In recent years, studies about the hazards, determination, and methods for reduction of nitrate and nitrite in food have been conducted worldwide. This review summarized the current information of nitrate and nitrite in foods, including their function, generation, hazards, determination and ways for reduction, to help providing a full view of nitrate and nitrite in foods.