International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety
ISSN: 2165-896X (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Table of Content for Vol. 6 No. 1, 2015

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Guava
Yong-Hong Chen, Tong Zhou, Yu-Jie Zhang, Zhi-Fei Zou, Fang Wang, Dong-Ping Xu
      
 PP. 1 - 9
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ABSTRACT: Guava is fruit of Psidium guajava, and can be consumed with fresh or processed form. In this study, the antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content of guava peel, flesh and seed were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays as well as the Folin–Ciocalteu method, respectively. In addition, the antiproliferative capacities of guava peel, flesh and seed on four cancer cell lines, A549 (human lung cancer cells), MCF-7 (human breast cancer cells), HepG2 (human hepatoma cells) and HT-29 (human colon cancer cells) were evaluated by the MTT assay. The results showed that guava possesses strong antioxidant and anticancer actions. Furthermore, several compounds, catechin, galangin, homogentisic acid, gallic acid, kaempferol and cyanidin 3-glucoside, were identified as active components of guava, and the contents of these compounds in guava peel and seed were higher than that in guava flesh. The results suggest that guava could be developed to functional food for prevention of some diseases.


Biocontrol Efficacy of Synbiotic Straw Berry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) Juice
T. Sheela, B. Durga Devi, B. Sabetha, M. Vinoth, Kaliyamoorthy Jayakumar
      
 PP. 10 - 16
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ABSTRACT: The effect of synbiotic fermented straw berry juice containing fructo-oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains including Lactobacillus acidophilus was tested for their antibiotic susceptibility, and tolerance to bile. Antifungal activity of symbiotic strawberry juice could differ in their antagonistic activity against fungal disease, which could be due to the metabolites secreted by the lactic acid bacteria, special type of organic acids and added fructo-oligosaccharide as a prebiotic and for food preservation. The major compounds in synbiotic straw berry juice were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS).


Effects of Washing, Soaking and Cooking Processes on Diazinon Insecticide and Butachlor Herbicide Residues in White Rice
F. Pir Pedardar, O. Eivaz Zadeh, B. Pakbin, A. Haj Hosseini Babaie, R. Mahmoudi, K. Mardani
      
 PP. 17 - 29
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ABSTRACT: White rice is one of the main ingredients of Iranian food. Simple domestic processes like washing, soaking and cooking enhance the digestibility and nutritive value of the rice. The use of pesticides is essential to improve agricultural and cultivation operations. Nevertheless, residues of pesticides in foods are toxic and hazardous for human health. In the present study the effects of domestic processes including washing, soaking, usual and traditional cooking on diazinon and butachlor residues in white rice have been investigated. Results revealed that diazinon residue was decreased in white rice samples 59.12%, 93.61%, 92.56% and 14.14% by washing, soaking, usual and traditional cooking processes, respectively. Except traditional cooking, all treatments reduced diazinon residue significantly in rice samples. Butachlor herbicide residue was also reduced in rice samples 68.30%, 96.15%, 90.48% and 74.87% by washing, soaking, usual and traditional cooking processes, respectively. All processes decreased the butachlor residue in rice samples significantly. According to obtained results, washing, soaking and cooking processes except traditional cooking for diazinon, reduced diazinon and butachlor residues in white rice.


Effects Of Fermentation On The Quality And Composition of Cassava Mash(Gari)
Oduah, N.O., Adepoju, P.A., Longe, O., Elemo, G.N. and Oke, O.V
      
 PP. 30 - 41
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ABSTRACT: The changes that took place during the fermentation of cassava mash over a period of ten days at ambient temperature (28 – 32oC) were investigated. On daily basis, changes in pH, titratable acidity, hydrocyanic acid (HCN), ascorbic acid as well as chemical composition were determined. pH decreased significantly (p<0.05) from 6.4 to 3.2 while titratable acidity initially increased significantly (p<0.05) from 0.2% to 0.8% from the first to the fourth day and thereafter reduced to 0.5%. HCN reduced significantly from 6.5 mg/100g to 3.2 mg/100g, while ascorbic acid increased significantly from 24 mg/100g to 28 mg/100g. Moisture content increased significantly (p<0.05) from 65.94% to 77.1% while protein, crude fibre and ash increased significantly (p<0.05%) within the first four days and thereafter decreased all through. Total plate count increased significantly from 5.2 x 103cfu /g to 8.4 x 105cfu/g within four days and thereafter reduced to 3.0 x 102cfu/g. Results obtained showed that fermentation for a period of four days will be adequate for optimum development of nutrients and organoleptic quality of cassava mash for gari processing.


Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls Levels in Raw Cow Milk from Various Locations in Qazvin, Iran
Zeynab Samadi Jirdehi, Peyman Gajarbeygi, Ashraf Haj Hosseini, Babak Pakbin, Asghar Mohammadpooras and Razzagh Mahmoudi
      
 PP. 42 - 51
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ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), (dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmentally expanded contaminants. As a result, human exposure to these environmental toxins is widespread and chronic. A number of 19 samples of raw milk collected from milk collecting centers in Qazvin in 2013 to assess the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The mean concentration of PCDD/Fs for raw milk samples was 15.3 (pg TEQ/g fat) (range 2.6–73.7). The results of this study demonstrate that the mean of total TEQ concentration was 15.7(pg TEQ/g fat) that is above the thresholds defined by WHO. The result showed that there was significant difference between the PCDD/FS and total TEQ value of raw milk samples. Detection of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in the environment and industrial products as well as in food is also necessary to be investigated in other areas of the country.