ABSTRACT: The olive tree (Olea europaea), native to the coastal areas of eastern mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, nowadays is cultivated all around the world. The products of olive trees, including olive leaves, fruit and oil, possess high nutritional and medicinal values. The characteristic bioactivities of olive products include antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-hypertension and anti-atherosclerosis and so on. The studies suggest that these benefits mainly come from its balance of polyunsaturate fatty acids and saturate fatty acids, together with the considerable amount of phenolics, sterols, tocopherols, etc. The objective of this review is to summarize the chemical components and bioactivities of Olea europaea.