International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety
ISSN: 2165-896X (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 12 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 12 No. 1, 2021

Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Seed Oils of Parkia Biglobosa and Syzygium Aromaticum on Escherichia Coli and Staphyloccocus Aureus
Lami Nnamonu, Accord Solomon and Terrumun Amom Tor-Anyiin
 PP. 1 - 9
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ABSTRACT: Nature-based products, including plant secondary metabolites are employed in a bid to combat bacterial resistance, which is a major cause of failure in the treatment of infectious diseases. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of oils of Parkia biglobosa and Syzygium aromaticum seeds against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in order to ascertain suitability of the oils as food preservatives for the control of the organisms on cooked food. The study involves the antibacterial activity of the oils on cooked rice spiked with E. coli 0157:H7 and S. aureus. Oil extracted from P. biglobosa seeds was subjected to qualitative phytochemical analysis using standard methods. This revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and glycosides. Antibacterial activity of oils of P. biglobosa and S. aromaticum were carried out using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods. The test organisms were laboratory isolates of E. coli and S. aureus. Results revealed that both oils possess significant anti-E. coli and anti-S. aureus activity at various concentrations (25%, 50% and 100%). Oil of P. biglobosa seeds showed stronger anti-E.coli activity at 50% concentration and strong anti-S. aureus at 25 % concentration. Oil of S. aromaticum with bud showed strong anti-E. coli at 100 % concentration and showed no anti-S. aureus activity. The oil of S. aromaticum without bud showed strong anti-E. coli activity at 100% concentration and anti-S. aureus at 50% concentration. This study revealed medicinal value addition to the traditional uses of the oils of P. biglobosa and S. aromaticum seeds. These oils have veritable potential for treatment of common food-borne diseases caused by E. coli and S. aureus.

Effect of in- situ Storage and Fermentation on the Microbial Population, Mineral Composition, and Anti-nutritional Properties of American Yam Bean (Pachyrizus erosus) Tubers and Their Flours
Josephine Ohuche, Chidi Ezeama and Victor Ntukidem
 PP. 11 - 27
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ABSTRACT: This study elucidated the efficacy of in-situ (underground) storage and fermentation of American yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) tubers on the microbial population, mineral composition and anti-nutritional properties of the flour. Seeds of American yam bean were planted in a farm at Effium, Ebonyi state, Nigeria for seven months. The fresh tubers after harvest were stored underground for the period of 3 months. Fresh and stored tubers were collected every month to produce flour for analyses. Both freshly harvested and stored tubers were washed, hand peeled, rewashed, sliced and fermented for 72 h, dried in a hot air oven (55 ºC, 6 hr), milled and sieved to obtain fermented flour. A similar procedure was repeated on the tubers, but not fermented to obtain unfermented flour. The flour samples were analyzed for microbial population, mineral composition, and anti-nutritional properties using standard methods. Fermentation of the tuber was appropriate as the anti-nutrient (HCN, Tannin, Oxalate and saponin) content of the flour samples significantly (P<0.05) decreased except for alkaloids. Fermentation also significantly (P<0.05) decreased calcium, sodium and phosphorus contents (mg/100g) of the flour from 9.52 to 8.43, 7.34 to 6.87 and 12.44 to 11.72 respectively for the tuber stored for 3 months. The microbial load of all the flour samples was significantly (P<0.05) low as shown in the total viable count (<101 CFU/g to 5.40x101 CFU/g, <101 CFU/g to 9.60x101 CFU/g) and total fungal counts (<101 CFU/g to 1.80x101 CFU/g, <101 CFU/g to 3.40x101 CFU/g) of the unfermented and fermented flours respectively. The total coliform count for all the tubers during fermentation were <101 CFU/g. It is evident that the American yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) tuber could be stored underground for at least 3 months to avoid post-harvest losses. The tubers when fermented or not fermented, could produce flours of low anti-nutrient contents and of acceptable mineral and microbial quality.

Assessment of Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Raw Meat Hygiene among Value Chain Personnel from Major Slaughter Slabs in Kebbi State, Nigeria
Ribah, M. I., Manga, S. S., Muftau, M. A., Bello, S. and Anlade, Y. D. R.
 PP. 28 - 40
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ABSTRACT: This study assessed the knowledge attitude and practice of raw meat value chain personnel from major slaughter slabs in Kebbi State, Nigeria. A total of 460 personnel were interviewed using an interview schedule. Data on knowledge, attitude and practice was collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics and T-test at 5%. Results on demographic characteristics of the respondents indicated that male were predominant (96.3%) in the raw meat business. Married respondents constituted (62.8%) and the predominant age distribution was 15-20 years (35%). Occupationally, meat business accounts for the major work (84.7%) with between 5 – 10 years of experience (55%) in the business. The T-test result shows significant difference (P<0.05) indicating that there is knowledge of meat hygiene. The T-test conducted for attitude of personnel on meat hygiene have showed no significant difference (P>0.05) implying that the attitude of personnel in slaughter slabs towards meat hygiene is neutral. The T-test for practices of meat hygiene indicated that there is significant difference (P<0.05) indicating a poor practice. The study concluded that there is a significant knowledge of meat hygiene among personnel in the raw meat value chain. Also, the attitude of personnel towards meat hygiene at slaughter slabs is neutral. However, the practice of meat hygiene in the major slaughter slabs in Kebbi state has been shown to be very poor according to the findings of this research. This could pose serious food safety issues. Hence, training in health education of the operators on modern, more hygienic and safer abattoir practices is advocated.

Effect of Some Natural Additives and Forms of Application on Organoleptic Properties of Fried Beef
Abubakar, S.; Ribah, M. I. and Muftau, M. A.
 PP. 41 - 46
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effect of four natural additives (onion, garlic, clove and ginger) and two forms of application (powder and extract) organoleptic properties of fried beef. The prepared additives of 50g were applied by sprinkling on twelve (12) pieces of boiled beef weighing between 35 – 40g to the first group of meat, and another 50g of the additives applied to the second group of meat by dipping, and the samples were allowed to equilibrate for 30 minutes before frying. The treated beef was then fried in vegetable oil to an internal temperature of 100°C after holding for four minutes. Result indicated that both the type natural additives and form of application had significantly affected (P<0.05) the organoleptic parameters measured. Type of additive have only significantly affected (P<0.05) juiciness with clove, garlic, onion and ginger having scored 6.95, 7.10, 7.25 and 7.45 respectively on a nine point hedonic scale, but other parameters were not significantly affected (P>0.05). Form of application had significant effect (P<0.05) on juiciness, flavor and acceptability but tenderness and aroma were not significantly affected. Extract form of application showed higher performance as it favourably scored 28.7 points in acceptability than powdered form of application. There was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between natural additives and form of application. The study concluded that ginger in powdered form could be used as an additive in value addition of fried meat.