International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety
ISSN: 2165-896X (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 6 No. 3or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 6 No. 3, 2015

A Review on Probiotic Dairy Products as Functional Foods Reported from Iran
Razzagh Mahmoudi, Keyvan Tahapour, Aida Farhoodi, Omid Fakhri1, Ata Kaboudari, Seyedeh Faezeh Rahimi Pir-Mahalleh, Mahsa Khayyati Kohne Shahri, Roya Chegini
 PP. 94 - 105
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, the consumption and importance of functional foods have increased. Functional foods have therapeutic effects beside their nutritional importance. Probiotic foods and enriched dairy products are among the most important functional foods, especially because of their health promoting effects. Therefore many studies have been published around the presence and the role of probiotics and their viability in dairy food such as yogurt, cheese and ice cream. The focus of this article is to review the application of probiotic microorganisms in dairy products and methods for increasing their viability in dairy food products from Iran.

The In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Dried Flowers Used in Guangdong Traditional Soup
Li Fu, Ze-Qian Li, Zhi-Cheng Xie, Zhi-Xi Tan, Qiu-Li Zhang
 PP. 106 - 116
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To research the antibacterial effect of deionized water and ethanol-water extracts from the dried flowers used in Guangdong traditional soup on 7 kinds of familiar intestinal pathogenic bacteria. Methods: We selected 8 types of dried flowers most commonly used in making Guangdong traditional soup, including Rafflesia arnoldii, Bombax ceiba, Dolichos lablab, Pueraria lobata, Flos buddlejae, Lonicera japonica, Flos sophorae and Cordyceps militaris. Seven target bacteria were chosen from usual intestinal pathogenic agents, which included Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacteriostasis rate, MIC and MBC were examined to evaluate the dried flowers’ antibacterial activity on these pathogens. Results: Our findings showed that all the samples exhibited potent antibacterial activity. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the tested extracts than Gram-negative ones. Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive, while Escherichia coli was the most resistant. The antibacterial activity of Cordyceps militaris was the strongest, and Flos sophorae and Lonicera japonica followed. At the same time, the antibacterial effect of ethanol-water extract was higher than that of deionized water extract. Conclusions: This was the first time to study the antibacterial property of principal material used in Guangdong traditional soup. These results might underline the theoretical foundation for the dried flowers related Guangdong Traditional Soup’s function of adjusting human body’s healthy condition which we thought was in relationship in some extent with mild inflammation of upper respiratory tract and tonsils. The more explicit mechanism of the antibacterial effect should be further studied.

Characterization and the Anti-nutritional Composition of Unprocessed Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana)
Abdullahi Abubakar, Suleiman Bala, Ephraim A. Audu, Salisu Mohammad, Muhammad Gero, Lami lande
 PP. 117 - 124
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ABSTRACT: Characterization and anti-nutritional composition of unprocessed finger millet (Eleusine coracana) was conducted. The result of the nutritional constituent shows significant amount of lipid and carbohydrate (2.4% ± 0.02, 79.53% ± 0.03) respectively, with the moisture, ash, fiber, protein levels being 11.75% ± 0.06, 2.2% ± 0.02, 1.20% ± 0.05 and 2.92% ± 0.03) respectively using A.O.A.C. method. The result of anti-nutritional analysis in this study shows that cyanide, oxalate, tannin and phytic acid contain (0.44mg/kg, 0.27mg/100g, 0.989% and 0.348%) respectively. The percentage area yield of the saturated and un-saturated fatty acid. The saturated fatty acid Palmitic and steric acid contents are 19.69% and 10.68% respectively, while the unsaturated fatty acid oleic acid contain 12.35%. The mineral composition of the finger millet was determined using AAS.AA-6800 SHIMADZU. Ca, K, Na, Mg, Zn, Fe and Cr where found to contain (174.58, 158.1, 24.372, 20.78, 0.533, 9.64 and1.118mg/100g) respectively. Vitamin B6, B3, B1, B2 and E are 167.7, 11.24, 332.24, 125.66 and 60.23mg/100g respectively. Maximum utilization of the potential of the millet is limited by the presence of these anti-nutrients. This result shows that the anti-nutrients of the unprocessed finger millet can hinder the absorption of the nutrients.

Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds of Bottle Gourd towards the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles and Its Bio-efficacy
Vivekanand Kumara, P R Hussainb, Suchandra Chatterjeea, Prasad Shekhar Variyara
 PP. 125 - 149
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ABSTRACT: The anti-oxidant property of various parts of Lagenaria siceraria and its derived fractions were investigated by various assays. Among them crude peel extract showed highest radical scavenging and reducing power activity. Ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated most active due to its highest radical scavenging activity and phenolic content. Twenty seven phenolic compounds were identified from LCMS/MS analysis of EAF. Methyl apigenin, acacetin, thymol, dicaffeoylquinic acid, phloridzin, isorhamnetin-3-O-hexoside and rosmarinic acid were identified for the first time. Thus bottle gourd peel being potent antioxidant could be used for prevention of those diseases where oxidative damage has been implicated. Hence a simple, biocompatible, eco-friendly method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (NP) was developed using bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) peel extract (BGPE) monitoring ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The gold NPs had a face-centered cubic structure having size range 40-50 nm with spherical morphology revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). These nanoparticles exhibited good anti-cancerous activity in a concentration dependent loss of survival in p53 mutant A431 skin carcinoma cells. The developed eco-friendly method for the synthesis of biocompatible gold NPs utilizing bio waste could prove a better substitute for the physical and chemical methods for biological applications.

Analysis of Adulteration in Raw Cow Milk Samples Collected From East Azerbaijan Province of IRAN
Razzagh Mahmoudi, Mahsa Khayyati Kohneh Shahri, Mir-Hassan Moosavy, Reza Norian
 PP. 150 - 156
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ABSTRACT: Milk is the best and cheapest source of nutrition required for growth of infants and children and for maintenance of health in adults, so easily accepted and used by all the age groups in rural as well as in urban areas. Improving milk quality, moreover keeping the health, safety, satisfaction of milk and its products consumers is really momentous. Keeping in view the above facts, the present study was conducted to detect various adulterants in raw cow milk samples collected from East Azerbaijan province of Iran during 2014. The water, salt, carbonate and whey were detected in 40.0, 10.0, 11.6 and 5.0 percent samples. No sample was found to be adulterated with hydrogen peroxide and formalin. Milk quality control as an important nutritional product with high per capita consumption which has special role in human diet, especially children, in terms of physicochemical properties and the remainder of the additives is essential.

Detection of Aflatoxin Bl in Food Using Resonance Light Scattering by the Inclusion Complex of β-Cyclodextrin
Ming-Yuan Huang, Lu Gan, Juan-Xiu Dai, Lu Zhai, Tang-Bin Zou
 PP. 157 - 164
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ABSTRACT: A sensitive method for detection of aflatoxin B1 in food by using resonance light scattering (RLS) was presented in this study. β-cyclodextrin (β-Cyd) inclusion complex containing aflatoxin Bl as a guest was prepared with ethanol. Effects of pH, concentration of β-Cyd, and temperature on the inclusion complex of β-Cyd and aflatoxin Bl were examined. The results showed that aflatoxin Bl reacts with β-Cyd to form a host-guest complex. Based on the enhancement of the RLS of complex formation, a new method for the determination of aflatoxin Bl in food was developed, the linear relationship between the RLS and aflatoxin Bl concentration was obtained in the range of 0.38 to 10.0 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989. The detection limit was 0.38 ng/mL. The accuracy of this method is high. The applicability of the method was also confirmed by actual samples.

An Overview of the Hazards and Management Strategies for Antibiotic Residue in Honey
Razzagh Mahmoudi, Babak Pakbin
 PP. 165 - 173
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ABSTRACT: Humans have kept bees for the production and harvest of honey since 4000 BC. In past societies, honey was of great importance, particularly for its medicinal purposes. Honey has the image of being a natural and healthy product. However, today honey is produced in an environment, polluted by different sources of contamination. The contamination sources can be environmental and apicultural ones. Antibiotics are found in honey largely because they are used in apiculture for treatment of bacterial diseases. Antibiotics such as oxytetracycline, erythromycin, lincomycin, monensin, streptomycin, and enrofloxacin are also reportedly used in beekeeping. The extensive use of antibiotics leads to an accumulation of residues in honey decreasing their quality and making their marketing more difficult. Antibiotic residues show a relatively long half-life and they may have direct toxic effects on consumer’s e.g., allergic reactions in hypersensitive individuals and disorder of the haemopoietic system, or cause problems indirectly through induction of resistant strains of bacteria. The European Union (EU) regulates honey under the Council Directive 2001/110/EC, and the standard for antibiotics in food is listed in Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010.

Biological Properties of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Essential Oil: Phytochemical Component, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities
Soghra Valizadeh, Farzad Katiraee, Razzagh Mahmoudi, Tayebeh Fakheri, Karim Mardani
 PP. 174 - 184
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ABSTRACT: Cinnamomum barks and leaves are widely used as spice and flavoring agent in foods. The present study was conducted to investigate chemical compositions, total phenol, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cinnamomum essential oil (CEO). The CEO was characterized by large amount of cinnamaldehyde, which representing about 69.15% of CEO. Total phenol was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu (53.74 mg gallic acid equivalent/mL of CEO). Free radical scavenging activity of CEO was measured by DPPH assay. Free radical scavenging increased with increasing CEO concentration. The concentration of CEO resulting in 50% inhibition of the free radical (IC50) was 79.54 μg/mL. The antibacterial activity of CEO against S. thyphimurium, E. coli, and B. cereus was evaluated by disk and agar well diffusion methods. This CEO was also tested against 3 fungal strains including Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida parapsilosis and MIC and MFC was measured. The CEO was most effective on B. cereus in both methods. Diameter of inhibition zone of the highest concentration of CEO in disk and agar well diffusion methods was 30 mm. MIC of all Candida species was 0.012%. MFC of C. albicans, C. parapesilosis and C. dubliniensis were 0.012%, 0.012% and 0.048%, respectively.