ABSTRACT: Sulforaphane, one of isothiocyanates, is abundant in many cruciferous vegetables. Sulforaphane makes beneficial contribution to the human health because of its anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective activities. The epidemiologic and experimental studies have proved that sulforaphane has great anticancer potential. Sulforaphane can affect many steps of cancer development. Not only can it modulate early stages of initiation, but is involved in the promotion and progression phases. Besides, in vitro and vivo studies have reported that sulforaphane has potent anti-inflammatory activity by modulating the release of a variety of inflammatory cytokines via the activation of Nrf2 pathway. A few of studies also assert that sulforaphane can inhibit bacterial growth. This review summarizes current knowledge about bioactivities and action mechanism of sulforaphane.