International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety
ISSN: 2165-896X (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Table of Content for Vol. 5 No. 2, 2014

Resistances to Chemotherapeutic Agents in Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Organic Fresh Vegetables Marketed in Valencia (Spain)
Pilar Falomir, Patricia González, Hortensia Rico, Daniel Gozalbo
      
 PP. 39 - 49
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ABSTRACT: The presence of antibiotic-resistant enterobacteria in fresh vegetables can be considered as a silent food safety concern, contributing to dissemination of resistances in the community. Here, we have studied the presence of Enterobacteriaceae isolates in organic fresh produce and the resistance of these isolates to eleven chemotherapeutic agents. A total of 50 samples of organic fresh vegetables (carrot, tomato, arugula and lettuce) marketed in Valencia (Spain) were analyzed. More than half of the vegetable samples analyzed (27 out of 50, 54%) were positive for the presence of coliform bacteria, including samples of all types of vegetables tested (90% arugula, 70% carrot, 50% lettuce and 10% tomato samples). A total of 37 isolates belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were identified: Pantoea agglomerans (nine isolates), Serratia marcescens (six) and Enterobacter cloacae (five), among others. Only five isolates were susceptible to all agents tested (13%), and no resistances to streptomycin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole or chloramphenicol were found. Most isolates were resistant to ampicillin (31 out of 37), and 15 isolates showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic. Resistances to other agents were less frequent: nitrofurantoine (six isolates), cefotaxime (four), tetracycline (two), and gentamicin (one). Multiresistances to two (ten isolates), three (one isolate) and four agents (five isolates) were also observed. These results point out that control of organic fresh produce should be improved to avoid contamination with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, probably from human and/or animal origin, which can be considered as a serious issue concerning the quality of organic produce.


Effect of Spices and Herbs on Farinographic Curve Characteristics and Pasting Properties of Dough
Gurpreet K Dhillon, Amarjeet Kaur, Preeti Ahluwalia
      
 PP. 50 - 62
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ABSTRACT: Cinnamon, clove, garlic, oregano and thyme were incorporated at 1, 2, 3 and 4% in wheat flour to study their effect on rheological properties of dough. Addition of cinnamon, clove, oregano and thyme increased the water absorption, dough development time and mixing tolerance index while dough stability was decreased. However, garlic powder decreased water absorption and dough stability and resulted in weakening of dough. Addition of above mentioned spices and herbs increased the pasting temperature of wheat flour whereas peak viscosity, hold viscosity and final viscosity were decreased. Addition of cinnamon, clove and garlic increased breakdown viscosity and setback viscosity, except for oregano and thyme where a decrease in setback viscosity was observed.


Effect of Dried Marigold Flower Powder as a Source of Natural Color on Rheological Properties of Flour
Preeti Ahluwalia, Amarjeet Kaur, Gurpreet K Dhillon
      
 PP. 63 - 73
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ABSTRACT: In present study the effect of supplementation of marigold flower in wheat flour on farinographic and pasting properties was investigated. Marigold flower powder from three varieties of marigold viz. Pusa Narangi, Pusa Basanti and Solan1 were supplemented at the level of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. Addition of marigold powder significantly increased the water absorption and Dough development time for all the three varieties. Time to breakdown also increased significantly for all the three varieties at all levels of supplementation as compared to control. The values for paste temperature, peak viscosity, hold viscosity and final viscosity decreased significantly whereas the values for breakdown increased significantly for all the three varieties at all levels of supplementation as compared to control. The results of the present study revealed that addition of marigold significantly affect the rheology of dough. By modify the baking process; marigold can be used as a functional ingredient in bakery products to enhance their antioxidant and nutritional properties.


Role of Anaerobes as Probiotic Organisms
Emelda E. Chukwu, Francisca O. Nwaokorie, Akitoye O. Coker
      
 PP. 74 - 97
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ABSTRACT: Probiotics are live organisms that confer health beneficial effects to the host when consumed in adequate and controlled amount. This is a growing research area and several studies have established the use of friendly anaerobes especially of the Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria species in the treatment and management of medical conditions including gastrointestinal diseases, allergies and cancer. Nevertheless, there are still concerns over the relevance and side effects of probiotics. In addition, there is a need to evaluate these probiotic species in order to determine their efficacy and benefits in defined medical conditions. Nigeria like other sub-Saharan African countries is burdened with diarrhea, HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases which probiotics have been shown to improve. However severe lack of probiotic use and research in Nigeria is of particular concern. Therefore this review examines the concept of probiotics, in relation to friendly anaerobes highlighting their importance in terms of therapeutic and nutritional properties and ultimately explores how the benefits of this science can be utilized by the Nigerian populace.


Chemical Components and Bioactivities of Psidium guajava
Fang Wang, Yong-Hong Chen, Yu-Jie Zhang, Gui-Fang Deng, Zhi-Fei Zou, An-Na Li, Dong-Ping Xu, Hua-Bin Li
      
 PP. 99 - 114
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ABSTRACT: Psidium guajava commonly known as guava, is one of the economical fruit crops in the Myrtaceae family, grows in tropical and subtropical region. Psidium guajava makes a beneficial contribution to the human diet because of their contents in vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolic compounds. Traditionally guava is used for the treatment of various ailments like diarrhoea wounds, rheumatism, lung problems, ulcers etc. The pharmacological studies have demonstrated that this plant possessed antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-allergy, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasite, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, supporting a great therapeutic potential and a wide range of clinical applications. This review summarizes current knowledge about chemical constituents and bioactivities of Psidium guajava.