International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety
ISSN: 2165-896X (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 5 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 5 No. 1, 2014

Chemical Changes during Open and Controlled Fermentation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Flour
Harouna V. Difo, Elewechi Onyike, Danladi A. Ameh, Uche S. Ndidi, Godwin C. Njoku
 PP. 1 - 10
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ABSTRACT: The effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, some mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence- causing oligosaccharides of a domesticated bean (Vigna unguiculata) was studied. The open fermentation was carried out using the microorganisms present in the atmosphere, while the controlled fermentation was carried out using Aspergillus niger as a starter. The two types of fermentation brought about more than 20% increase in the protein content. The lipids, carbohydrates, crude fibre and ash content were all reduced by less than 75% by both processing techniques, except the level of moisture content which increased in controlled fermentation. Apart from calcium, the other elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Zn, and K) suffered from less than 90% reduction by the two types of fermentation. The phytate, tannin, alkaloids, hydrogen cyanide, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and oxalate content all had more than 20% reduction by the two types of fermentation. The percentages of reduction due to controlled fermentation were higher than those of open fermentation in the eight antinutrients studied. Fermentation is, therefore, an efficient method for detoxifying the antinutrients in the cultivated beans studied in this work.

Nutritional Value and Physiological Effect of Apple Pomace
Humaira Gazalli, Altaf Hussain Malik, Asif Hassan Sofi, Sarfaraz Ahmad Wani, Mohammad Ashraf Pal, Ambreen Mir, Humaira Ashraf
 PP. 11 - 15
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ABSTRACT: Apple pomace is obtained as a main by-product of apple juice industry. It consists of 25-35% of dry mass of apple. Apple pomace is a good source of dietary fibres, pectin and antioxidants, and thus has health benefits. Pectin helps in improving texture of meat products and its antioxidant activity improves the shelf life of the products.

Effect of Fermentation Time on Quality Attributes of Zobo Drink Prepared from Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn
Emmanuel O. Nwafor, Olubunmi O. Akpomie
 PP. 16 - 23
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ABSTRACT: Investigation on the effect of fermentation time on the quality attributes of Zobo drink was conducted at room temperature by examining the changes in pH, titratable acidity, carbohydrate, protein and vitamin C contents and total soluble solids (TSS). Sensory attributes of aroma, taste, visual appearance (colour) and overall acceptability were also assessed. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger were used for controlled fermentation for a period of 48 h while analyses for the various parameters were carried out at 12 h intervals. Results showed various degrees of changes in quality attributes compared with fresh product. Zobo drink produced following fermentation for a period of 12 h did not differ much from the fresh product. Similarly, sensory qualities did not show any appreciable preference as regards overall acceptability within the same period. Fermentation by S. cerevisiae yielded products which scored higher for aroma, visual appearance, taste and overall acceptability than those by A. niger. Acceptability declined from the 24th hour. Fermentation for 12 h with Saccharomyces cerevisiae is recommended when fermentation is to be employed in zobo drink production.

Safety of Dried Fruits Marketed in Tehran as Assessed by Aflatoxins Contamination
Mohammad Reazai, Mehran Sayadi, Bahman Akbarpour, Issa Mohammadpourfard, Abdalrahman Behzadi, Hossein Teimoory
 PP. 24 - 30
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ABSTRACT: Total aflatoxins in dried fruits available in Tehran city at four urban zones were evaluated using an ELISA method. The study was conducted on 64 samples including raisins (n=16), dried apricots (n=16), dried prunes (n=16), and dried cherries (n=16), which were collected and analyzed for aflatoxins. The results confirmed that 76.57 % (49 of 64 samples) of the samples had no detectable aflatoxins and the average content of aflatoxins for all the samples was 0.47 μg/kg. The greatest concentration of aflatoxins was 4.53 μg/kg in a dried apricot sample, while 1.56% (1 of 64) of the apricot samples exceeded the EU limit of 4 μg/kg.