International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy
ISSN: 2165-8951 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 9 No. 3or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 9 No. 3, 2014

Impact of Sugar Mill Effluent on Photosynthetic Pigment Content and Biochemical Constituents Variance of Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonaloba (L) Taub)
Kaliyamoorthy Jayakumar, Rajesh. M and T.M. Sathees Kannan
 PP. 143 - 160
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ABSTRACT: The present study was carried to find out the impact of sugar mill effluent on photosynthetic pigment content and biochemical constituents variance of Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonaloba (L) Taub). All the photosynthetic Pigment content; such as chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid content and biochemical constituents, such as, starch, amino acid, protein, reducing and non-reducing sugar content were increased at 10 % sugar mill effluent concentration of cluster bean plants. The above parameters were decreased at higher (25, 50, 75 and 100 %.) concentrations of sugar mill effluents.

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Resorption Efficiency in Some Native Tropical Trees Planted on a Mine Spoil in Singrauli Coalfields, India
Arvind Singh
 PP. 161 - 170
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ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to explore the nitrogen and phosphorus resorption efficiencies in eight native tropical trees planted on a mine spoil. Of the eight investigated species Acacia catechu, Albizia lebbeck, Dalbergia sissoo and Pongamia pinnata were represented by leguminous tree species while Azadirachta indica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Terminalia bellerica were represented by non-leguminous tree species. All the tree species have shown higher nitrogen and phosphorus resorption efficiencies on nitrogen and phosphorus deficient mine spoil. Non-leguminous species had shown greater efficiency for nitrogen resorption than the leguminous species. However, no such trend emerged for phosphorus resorption efficiency between both groups of plants.

Biomass Energy
Askari Mohammad Bagher
 PP. 171 - 195
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ABSTRACT: To many people, the most familiar forms of renewable energy are the wind and the sun. But biomass (plant material and animal waste) is the oldest source of renewable energy, used since our ancestors learned the secret of fire. Until recently, biomass supplied far more renewable electricity or “biopower” than wind and solar power combined (Washington, 2008). If developed properly, biomass can and should supply increasing amounts of biopower. In fact, in numerous analyses of how many countries can transition to a clean energy future, sustainable biomass is a critical renewable resource (Rachel, 2009a). Biomass is a renewable energy source not only because the energy it comes from the sun, but also because biomass can re-grow over a relatively short period of time. Through the process of photosynthesis, chlorophyll in plants captures the sun"s energy by converting carbon dioxide from the air and water from the ground into carbohydrates complex compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Effect of Ethyl Methanesulfonate on Fatty Acid Characteristic of Nannochloropsis sp.
Dina Augustine, Mujizat Kawaroe, Agus Oman Sudrajat
 PP. 196 - 204
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ABSTRACT: The ability of microalgae to grow in short time with huge biomass production has become the reference point to produce biofuel in short time as well. Until now, it still needs microalgae species that is capable of producing numerous biomass and high levels of fatty acid so it is able to supply basic needs for biofuel. One of the method used to increase microalgae biomass is mutagenesis. Mutagenesis method here is conducted by adding certain compounds called Ethyl Methanesulfonate (EMS) to microalgae cell. The results of this study showed that the highest biomass was obtained from Nannochloropsis sp. cultivation with 0.1 M EMS concentration in two different phases (1.08 ± 0.33 and 1.11 ± 0.07 gr/L). Gas chromatography identification has detected the presence of 22 compounds of saturated fatty acid and 3 compounds of unsaturated fatty acid. Three compounds of unsaturated fatty acid detected were C18:2 cis-9 (methyl oleate), C16:1 (methyl palmitoleate) and C18:2 (methyl linoleic). The highest percent area/concentration of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid respectively is C16:0 (methyl palmitate) as much as 67.70±0.05 at stationary phase and C16:1 (methyl palmitoleate) as much as 17.59±0.42 at death phase. From the results, it can be implied that EMS input in microalgae cultivation can increase the percentage of certain fatty acids that potentially produce to be biodiesel.

Perceived Non Carbon Benefits from Community Based Forest Management and Lessons for REDD+: Insights from Northern Tanzania
Thabit Jacob
 PP. 205 - 216
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ABSTRACT: As REDD+ unfold on the ground in pilot countries, attention has focused primarily on financial benefits that forest dependent communities and countries will receive for selling carbon credits. However, benefits from REDD+ are more than just financial revenues associated with carbon storage or sequestration. There is a need to clarify non-carbon benefits and their contributions to the wellbeing of forest dependent communities. In this paper, I explore perceived non-carbon benefits from Duru-Haitemba Villages Land Forest Reserve, a CBFM site which is getting ready to embrace in the REDD+ mechanism. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data collection. They included household interviews using a structured questionnaire; key informant interviews, transect walks, observations, and focus group discussions. The results suggest that, communities currently benefits from a wide range of non-carbon benefits ranging from tangible forest products, environmental/ecosystem services and social benefits which are related to governance, trainings and political empowerment as well as issues of connectedness and networks among villagers. I argue that there is a need to consider these benefits broadly instead of focusing mainly on financial benefits from carbon credits and for REDD+ to deliver climate change mitigation, non-carbon benefits are must be taken on board and incentivized.

Phytosociological Study of Herbaceous Plant Community in Yusmarg Forest: A Developing Hill Resort in Kashmir Valley
Asma Absar Bhatti, Rouf Ahmad Bhat , Ashok K. Pandit
 PP. 217 - 235
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ABSTRACT: The present research was conducted at Yusmarg area of Kashmir region, aimed to study the present scenario of phytosociology with respect the species dominance, species diversity and to study human impact to the herb community. The research was carried out from June to December, 2010. The study was based on three study sites with marked differences in their physical and biotic features. During the study period, 41 herb species belonging to 20 different families were observed. The total importance value index was observed the highest (93.81) for Cynadon dactylon at site 1 and lowest (1.54) for Leucanthemum vulgare and Geum sp at site 1. The total relative density was observed the highest (52.46) for Cynadon dactylon at site 1 and lowest (0.06) for Leucanthemum vulgare and Geum sp at site 1. Shanon-Weaver diversity index was having small variation during the study period. Simpson’s Dominance index was less than 1 which showed that the sites were not dominated by single species. The spatial distribution pattern of herbs was contagious. The Sorenson’s Similarity index was the highest (69.17%) between site 2 and site 3 and lowest (46.39%) between site 1 and site 3. The results showed that there is low grazing pressure and moderate human impact on normal distribution of herb species which may cause reduction in herbaceous community in next few decades in the forest ecosystem.

Woody Species Composition of Naturally Revegetated Coal Mine Spoils on Singrauli Coalfields, India
Arvind Singh
 PP. 236 - 242
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ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to explore the woody species composition of an age series of naturally revegetated coal mine spoils on Singrauli coalfields, India. The spoils chosen for the study were 2, 10 and 20 years old. Woody species composition increased with increasing age of the spoils and the number of woody species on 2˗20 years old mine spoils varied between 2 and 31. Trees dominate over shrubs on the mine spoils. The total tree species density was greater on 20-year spoil as compared to 2- and 10-year old spoil. The two leguminous tree species Butea monosperma and Senegalia catechu have the greatest densities among all recorded woody species on 20-year old spoil, and were common to all the three age coal mine spoils. Most of the woody species colonizing the mine spoils were native and the constituent species of the tropical dry deciduous forest of the locality.