International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy
ISSN: 2165-8951 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 11 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 11 No. 1, 2016

Purification of Mono-Diacylglycerol through Saponification and Solvent Extraction
Dwi Setyaningsih, Balya Al Bashir, Very HeriYesen Silalahi, Neli Muna
 PP. 1 - 11
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ABSTRACT: Purification of mono-diacylglycerides (MDAG) through saponification and solvent extraction was studied. MDAG was prepared by direct esterification of glycerol, a by product of biodiesel process, with palm fatty acids distillates (PFAD) in the presence of acid catalyst methylester sulfonates. The purification process started with addition of n-hexane to remove TAG, followed by saponification with alkaline solution to saponify free fatty acids and extraction to dissolve soaps. The result showed that saponification and solvent extraction can increase the purity of MDAG. The white, dry texture, and odorless product obtained from saponification with 0.1 N NaOH and extraction with ethanol and water (1:1). The yield of MDAG was 39.68%, pH value of 6.0, melting point at 52oC, and 72% emulsion stability for 12 hours. The approximate content of MDAG from TLC analysis was 48%, while free fatty acid was 13.62%.

Diversity of Weed Ecology of Aliero Local Government Areas, Kebbi State, Nigeria
Dharmendra Singh
 PP. 12 - 23
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ABSTRACT: The study diversity of weed ecology is concerned with growth characteristic and adaptations that enable weeds to survive changes in the environment. The environment include climatic, edaphic and biotic factor and determines the distribution, prevalence, competing ability behavior and survival of weeds. The collections have been found to be spread in 23 weed families, 50 genera, and 55 species of angiorspermic weeds. They are Acanthaceae 2 species, Amaranthaceae 3 species, Asclepiadaceae 1 species, Asteraceae (Compositae) 5 species, Boraginaceae 1 species, Caesalpinaceae 2 species, Capparaceae 2 species, Commelinaceae 3 species, Convolvulaceae 1 species, Cyperaceae 2 species, Fabaceae (Papilionaceae) 3 species, Lamiaceae 2 species, Malvaceae 3 species, Nyctaginaceae 1 species, Onagraceae 1 species, Pedaliaceae 1 species, Poaceae 11 species, Rubiaceae 2 species, Scrophulariaceae 2 species, Solanaceae 4 species, Sterculiaceae 1 species, Tiliaceae 2 species, Zygophyllaceae 1 species.

Qualities of Effluents from Three Cocoa Processing Factories in Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria
Akinyinka Akinnusotu, Jacob Olalekan Arawande
 PP. 24 - 35
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ABSTRACT: Industrial pollution has been and will continue to be a major factor causing the degradation of the environment around us, affecting the land we live on, the water we use and the air we breathe. Effluents from three cocoa processing factories (A, B and C) in Ondo State, Nigeria were analyzed for physicochemical properties, heavy metals and microbial load. The temperature ranged between 28.800C and 29.400C. The pH values of the effluents ranged between 6.00 and 6.60. Conductivity of the effluents ranged between 480 and 660μs/cm. The total dissolved solids (TDS) values in the waste water ranged from 198mg/L for factory B, 220mg/L for factory A and 320mg/L for factory C while the total suspended solids (TSS) values ranged from 18.60 to 30.20mg/L. Turbidity of the effluents ranged between 12.2 and 15.50 NTU with C having the highest value. Total hardness of the effluents ranged between 142.00 and 185.00 mg/LCaCO3. Dissolved oxygen levels in the effluents ranged 2.50mg/L and 3.50mg/L. The biological oxygen demand (BOD5) of the effluents were 26.20mg/L, 20.50mg/L and 18.80mg/L for factories A, B and C, these values fall within Federal Ministry of Environment (FME) effluent limit of 50 mg/L for discharges into inland surface water. Oil and grease was not detected in the effluents. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the effluents ranged between 58.40 and 75.60 mg/L. Phosphate level in the effluents ranged between 3.60 and 5.00mg/L while nitrate ranged from 14.40- 20.20 mg/L. The mean concentration values of heavy metals ranged for Cu (0.15-0.25)mg/L, Zn (0.02-0.10)mg/L, Mn (0.05-0.10)mg/L and Fe (0.66-1.20) mg/L. Pb and Cd were not detected. The total bacteria load was too numerous to count (TNTC) cfu/mL while the total Coliform count was 5 mpn/100mL for A, 3 mpn/100mL for B and 8 mpn/100mL for C respectively for the factories. Results were within the federal ministry of environment (FME) limits for effluent.

Increased Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose and Hemicellulose due to the Addition of Gluten and Triticale Grist
Michael Buck, Thomas Senn
 PP. 36 - 52
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ABSTRACT: The enzymatic activity of cellulases depends very much on their tendency to bind to lignin. Accordingly, crude wheat gluten supplement in mashes has been investigated concerning its effect on the extent of hydrolysis. The reasons for the use of crude gluten were the comparability to triticale grist and the high unspecific binding potential to the different lignin types. Hemp straw and miscanthus straw were steam-pretreated (155 °C, 45 min, no additives) and treated with gluten either during hydrolysis or fermentation. Hydrolysis of hemp straw in the presence of crude gluten achieved up to 50 % higher yields of free glucose and 75 % of xylose after 72 h (miscanthus 55 % more glucose, 45 % more xylose). In further experiments, gluten was added to prehydrolyzed mashes prior to fermentation, but this did not improve the fermentation extents. Simultaneously fermented lignocellulosic and triticale grist mashes were investigated for lignin-protein-ethanol interactions. Most mixtures achieved significantly higher cellulose hydrolysis and fermentation extents. UV-VIS measurements indicate binding of the lignin degradation products.

Enzymatic Production of DMC-BioD from Different Plant Seed Oil Using Dimethyl Carbonate
Balaji Panchal, Sanjay Deshmukh and Munish Sharma
 PP. 53 - 64
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ABSTRACT: Enzymatic transesterification by using lipase as catalyst has become more attractive for the production of biodiesel due to easy separation of products such as glycerol and methyl-esters. Biocatalytic synthesis is a promising environmentally friendly process for biodiesel production, from renewable plant resources. The maximum yield of different plant seed oil biodiesel could reached up to 93±0.02% with the optimal reaction conditions: oil to dimethyl carbonate ratio of 1:3w/w (100g oil: 300g DMC), 200mg of lipase mass ratio based on oil basis, reaction time 6h and agitation speed 300rpm. Properties of biodiesel as measured according to accepted methods were found to satisfy nearly all prescribed ASTM D 6751-02 specification, where applicable. Aim of the present research study was to produce biodiesel by environmentally safer method and low cost.