International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy
ISSN: 2165-8951 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 11 No. 2or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 11 No. 2, 2016

Source Characterization of Metals in Rainwater: Case Study of Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Francis Olawale Abulude and Akinyinka Akinnusotu
      
 PP. 65 - 77
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ABSTRACT: One source of water is rainwater. It is a pure solvent if not polluted. It has diverse functions in humans, animals and other materials. For rainwater not to be polluted, it means the values of cations, anions and particulate matter should be below water permissible limits. In this paper, we have characterized metals in rainwater harvested in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria using standard methods of analyses. The physico-chemical parameters and metals were below WHO water guidelines. The variation of the metals was as follows: Ca>K>Na>Mg>Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Cr. Cd was absent and the Pb content was low. Principal Component Analysis showed that factors 1, 2 and 3 showed high loadings for Cr and Zn; Pb and Ca; and Cu, Mn and Mg respectively. Sources of these metals were due to anthropogenic activities.


Kinetics of Acid Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Water Hyacinth Biomass for Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Xylose to Xylitol
Anamica Bhattacharya, Anup Kumar Sadhukhan, Amit Ganguly and Pradip Kumar Chatterjee
      
 PP. 78 - 97
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ABSTRACT: Lignocellulosic biomass is rich in sugar polymers which can be efficiently hydrolysed to obtain fermentable C5 sugars for their bioconversion in to xylitol. The effect of various parametric conditions on xylose yield and their relation with the activation energy and rate of hydrolysis reaction was studied where the maximum yield of xylose obtained from dilute acid hydrolysis of fresh water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] was 77.4% at 3 hr soaking time with 50 oC soaking temperature at 160 rpm agitation using 3% dilute H2SO4 and boiling time of 20 min. A maximum of 33.5 g/l of xylitol was obtained during fermentation using Pichia stipitis with a yield of 0.63 g xylitol/g of xylose at 48 hr fermentation.