International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy
ISSN: 2165-8951 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 11 No. 2or Keyword in Title:
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Table of Content for Vol. 11 No. 2, 2016

Source Characterization of Metals in Rainwater: Case Study of Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Francis Olawale Abulude and Akinyinka Akinnusotu
      
 PP. 65 - 77
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ABSTRACT: One source of water is rainwater. It is a pure solvent if not polluted. It has diverse functions in humans, animals and other materials. For rainwater not to be polluted, it means the values of cations, anions and particulate matter should be below water permissible limits. In this paper, we have characterized metals in rainwater harvested in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria using standard methods of analyses. The physico-chemical parameters and metals were below WHO water guidelines. The variation of the metals was as follows: Ca>K>Na>Mg>Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Cr. Cd was absent and the Pb content was low. Principal Component Analysis showed that factors 1, 2 and 3 showed high loadings for Cr and Zn; Pb and Ca; and Cu, Mn and Mg respectively. Sources of these metals were due to anthropogenic activities.


Kinetics of Acid Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Water Hyacinth Biomass for Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Xylose to Xylitol
Anamica Bhattacharya, Anup Kumar Sadhukhan, Amit Ganguly and Pradip Kumar Chatterjee
      
 PP. 78 - 97
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ABSTRACT: Lignocellulosic biomass is rich in sugar polymers which can be efficiently hydrolysed to obtain fermentable C5 sugars for their bioconversion in to xylitol. The effect of various parametric conditions on xylose yield and their relation with the activation energy and rate of hydrolysis reaction was studied where the maximum yield of xylose obtained from dilute acid hydrolysis of fresh water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] was 77.4% at 3 hr soaking time with 50 oC soaking temperature at 160 rpm agitation using 3% dilute H2SO4 and boiling time of 20 min. A maximum of 33.5 g/l of xylitol was obtained during fermentation using Pichia stipitis with a yield of 0.63 g xylitol/g of xylose at 48 hr fermentation.


Optimization of Independent Variables Affecting Bioethanol Production Using Escherichia coli KO11
Nyangi Chacha, Nils Dyrset and Godliving Mtui
      
 PP. 98 - 112
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ABSTRACT: This paper explores the optimization of three parameters namely pH, temperature and inocula in fermentation of Pinus patula chipped wood residue hydrolysate by Escherichia coli KO11 for bioethanol production while keeping other factors (sugar, residence time and nutrients) constant. The hydrolysate used in this study was pretreated by acid impregnated steam explosion (0.5 SO2 at 225°C for 5min) and later hydrolysed by commercial enzymes Novozyme 188 and Cellulaclast 1.5l for 72 hours at 50°C and 200 rpm. The optimal value was determined using Response Surface Method through Central Composite Face-centred (CCF) design. In determining the relationship between independent and dependent variable, the data were fitted to a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model and evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study established that pH and inocula have an influence on bioethanol yield unlike the temperature range. The optimizer analysis results showed that the highest ethanol concentration of 14.06 g/l is attained at optimal value of pH 6.4 and inoculum dose of 9.0%.


Transesterification of Mexican Poppy (Argemone mexicana Linn) Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel
Manoj Sarma, Mausumi Ganguly
      
 PP. 113 - 121
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ABSTRACT: Synthesis of biodiesel using nontraditional feedstocks and low cost catalyst has always been the area of interest for the biofuel researchers. In the search for new low cost alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production, this study emphasizes the conversion of Argemone seed oil into its methyl ester by transesterification reaction using a green catalyst derived from rice husk (Oryza sativa Linn). The synthesized fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was analyzed by IR, PNMR, 13CNMR and GC-MS techniques. The fatty acid profile of the ester showed that it is primarily composed of linoleic acid, oleic, palmitic and arachidic acids. The analysis of the physiochemical properties and the composition clearly indicates that the FAME obtained by transesterification of Argemone oil meets the requirements for a good quality biodiesel.