International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy
ISSN: 2165-8951 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Current Issue: Vol. 10 No. 1or Keyword in Title:
Editorial Email: ijebioe@modernscientificpress.comor Keyword in Abstract:

Table of Content for Vol. 10 No. 1, 2015

Biofiltration Emerging Technology for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s) - A Review
Kauselya K, Narendiran R, Ravi R
 PP. 1 - 8
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ABSTRACT: In this paper we present a review of biofilter, which is one of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal technique used more effectively. VOC’s discarded in the environment effect the ecological system. It also cause health hazard. Moreover the paper discusses the parameters effects the operation of biofilter. The merits and demerits of biofilter are also discussed.

Improving Sugar Conversion and Bioethanol Yield through Transgenic Sugarcane Clone in South Africa
Yuda Benjamin and Johann F. Görgens
 PP. 9 - 25
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ABSTRACT: This paper reports on agronomic properties and sugar conversion of bagasse from two sugarcane clones (transgenic and wild type). Transgenic clone showed higher stalk height (144.8 cm), stalk population (129 603), soluble sugar content in the juice (147 kg/ton cane) than the wild type (123 cm, 104 039, 140 kg/ton cane, respectively), but stalk diameter and cane yield per hectare were similar. The bagasse from transgenic clone was more digestible (up to 98.7% of potential glucose) than the wild type (84.8%). The total sugar yield from the bagasse after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis was also higher for transgenic clone (88% of potential sugar) than the wild type (82.7%). It was further observed that ethanol yield after simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated bagasse based on best condition was higher for transgenic clone (29.6 g/L, corresponding to 75.8% of potential glucose in pretreated material) compared to the wild type (26.8 g/L, corresponding to 69.2% of potential glucose). The observed differences could be attributed to chemical composition differences among the clones. The bagasse from transgenic clone showed lower lignin content (16.4 % dry weight) compared to wild type (21.3 %). The results provide evidence that the use of bagasse from transgenic clone yields more ethanol than conventional varieties, therefore, increasing ethanol production per feedstock.

Status of Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Mpanga/Kipengere Game Reserve, Tanzania
Allan Mashalla & Japhet Ringo
 PP. 26 - 40
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ABSTRACT: This study assessed the status of Human Wildlife Conflicts (HWC’s) in Mpanga/Kipengere Game Reserve. The study took place in Igomelo, Igando, and Luduga villages which are administratively in Wanging’ombe and Mbarali Districts. Data were collected by using questionnaire survey, key informants interviews, archive information, and physical site visits. A total of 100 respondents were involved in this study. Results indicated that respondents perceived crop raiding, boundary disputes, and restricted access to reserve resources as the major HWC’s in the study area which led to reduced household income and food insecurity. Major mitigation measures used by local people to mitigate the problem included crop guarding, digging trenches, and informing game reserve officials. For the MKGR to be effective in improving the livelihood of the local people and enhancing conservation, the study suggested the preparation of compensation schemes for destructions made by wildlife, benefits sharing from wildlife-related activities, and boundary demarcation.

Influence of NPK Fertilization on Growth Performance of Leucaena leucocephala Planted on Mine Spoil
Arvind Singh
 PP. 41 - 46
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ABSTRACT: The height, diameter and tree volume of Leucaena leucocephala were significantly greater in NPK fertilized plots compared to control plots on mine spoil. The annual height and tree volume increments were also greater in fertilized plots. The response to NPK fertilization decreased with increase in age of the trees of L. leucocephala on mine spoil.

Variation in Seed Germination and Early Growth of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under Nickel Treatments
S. Kaveriammal and A. Subramani
 PP. 47 - 53
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ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of the heavy metal nickel on seed germination and seedling growth of five varieties of Arachis hypogaea (TMV 3, TMV 5, TMV 9, TMV 11 and TMV 12). Seedlings were grown under laboratory conditions at 0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L of metal ions of nickel. Nickel treatments showed toxic effects on various growth indices of A. hypogaea. Increasing concentration of nickel up to 100 mg/L, the seed germination was decreased as compared to control. Root and shoot growth and fresh weight of the seedlings were also reduced at 100 mg/L treatment of nickel. TMV 9 exhibited somewhat more tolerant characters compared to other varieties. The concentrations above 100 mg/L proved to be lethal to groundnut varieties.

Weathering Processes and Irrigation Quality Assessment of the Part of River Jhelum, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Javid A. Sheikh, Gh. Jeelani, R. S. Gavali, Naseer A. Gani, Riyaz A. Baba
 PP. 54 - 64
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ABSTRACT: Eleven water samples were analyzed to assess weathering process and irrigation quality of the River Jhelum. The river water was found to be controlled by chemical weathering of the rock forming minerals. Scatter diagrams suggested the dominance of carbonate and silicate weathering. Two specific types of water were identified with the help of Durov and Piper diagrams that are referred to as Ca–HCO3, Mg–HCO3 types. The Langlier-diagram confirms the chemistry of meteoric water, i.e. Ca-Mg-HCO3. The calculated values of SAR, RSC and sodium percentage indicated that the river water is excellent for irrigation use.

Characterizations of Bio-oil and Bio-char Products from Algae with Slow and Fast Pyrolysis
Kanyaphorn Chaiwong and Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat
 PP. 65 - 76
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ABSTRACT: In this study, slow and fast pyrolysis of algae was carried out to get bio-oil and bio-char from dry freshwater algae; Spirulina Sp. and Spirogyra Sp. The bio-oil products from the slow pyrolysis were heterogeneous liquids, which had an obvious separation of water soluble and water insoluble phases. The liquid from the fast pyrolysis have a single phase. Due to the composition of bio-oils, higher carbon content, higher heating value and lower content of oxygen was found in the fast pyrolysis compared with those in the slow pyrolysis. Two of the functional group compositions from the fast pyrolysis oil were not found in the slow pyrolysis oil as the C≡C stretching and aromatic phenyl were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. The bio-chars from the fast pyrolysis showed smaller particle sizes and more dust than those from the slow pyrolysis. But the bio-chars from the slow pyrolysis had higher carbon content than those from the fast pyrolysis and thus the previous one had higher heating value. In the porous surface structures of algae, bio-chars were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It could be seen that the bio-chars obtained from the slow pyrolysis had thick particle walls while the fast pyrolyzed bio-char particles had fragile thin walls.