International Journal of Modern Biology and Medicine
ISSN: 2165-0136 (online)Search Article(s) by:
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Table of Content for Vol. 10 No. 1, 2019

Direct and Maternal Genetic Trend Estimates for Growth Traits of Zaraibi Goats in Egypt Using Multivariate Animal Models
El-Awady, H. G., M.M. El-Moghazy, I.A.M. Abu El-Naser, and A.A. El-Raghi
      
 PP. 1 - 19
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to estimate direct and maternal genetic trends for growth traits of Zaraibi goats in Egypt by using data of 2998, 2752, 2713, 2604, 2507 and 2009 kids of 763 does mated with 75 bucks for body weight at birth (BW), 30 day (W30), 60 day (W60), weaning (WW), 120 day (W120) and 180 day (W180), respectively. Data were collected through the period from 2005 to 2012 from Zaraibi herd raised in El-Serw Experimental Station, located in the North Eastern part of the Nile Delta, belongs to Animal Production Research Institute (APRI), Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt. Variance and covariance components analyzed by Derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood (REML) using animal model. A multivariate animal model analysis was applied to predict the breeding values of individual for the studied traits. For each trait, genetic trends were obtained by regression the means of predicted breeding values on year of birth. Direct heritability estimates ranged from 0.23 to 0.43, 0.28 to 0.41, 0.20 to 0.31, 0.17 to 0.34, 0.15 to 0.32 and 0.24 to 0.28 for BW, W30, W60, WW, W120 and W180, respectively. Corresponding maternal heritability for mentioned traits tends to decline from BW (0.21) to W180 (0.07), indicating that maternal effects on BW, W30 and W60 of Zaraibi goats need to be considered in any selection program. The correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects (ram) were positive for W30 (0.34), W60 (0.42) and WW (0.37), while the negative signs were observed for BW (-0.19), W120 (-0.47) and W180 (-0.42). Estimates of the fraction of variance due to maternal permanent environmental effects decreased from 0.12 for BW to 0.05 for W180, indicating the adaptation of animal to environmental conditions in older ages. Direct and maternal genetic correlations among kids weights ranged from 0.40 (BW-W180) to 0.85 (W60-WW) and from 0.47 (BW-W180) to 0.90 (WW-W120), respectively. Meanwhile, phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.35 (BW-W180) to 0.96 (WW-W120). Annual direct genetic trends for BW, W30, W60, WW, W120 and W180 were 6.22, 16.64, 7.731, 33.501, 31.986 and 72.419 g/year, respectively. Corresponding maternal genetic trends were -5.200, 22.51, 15.215, 24.59, -24.05 and -23.805 g/year, respectively. Phenotypic trends for growth traits by year of calving were 3.05, 39.74, 27.75, 55.99, 8.24 and 59.82 g/year, while the maternal permanent environmental trends were 0.024, 0.1012, 0.1149, 0.1435, 0.2261 and 0.1464 g/year for mentioned traits respectively.


Molluscicidal Activities of the Crystalline Ice Plant (Mesembranthmum crystalinum) Extract Against Monacha cartusiana Snails
Mahmoud Abd El-Atti, Khalil, A. M., Elsheakh, A. A. and Wesam, S. Elgohary
      
 PP. 20 - 34
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ABSTRACT: High densities of the glassy clover snails (Monacha cartusiana) were recorded at the last few years in large number of villages at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. The present study designed to control this agricultural destructive pest using ethanolic extract of the Ice plant (Mesembryanthmum crystalinum) using poisonous baits technique. Toxicological tests showed that 20% of extract caused 40% mortality of clover snails while 30% extract caused 70% mortality and the highest mortality percentage (90%) was recorded after treatment with 40% extract for 28 days. Enzymatic estimations showed that treatment with LC25 extract caused an elevation in ALT, AST, ACP, ALP, α esterase and phenoloxidase levels of treated snails while levels of amylase, protease and β-esterase were decreased compared to control snails. Histological investigation of the digestive gland of snails exposed to LC25 of M. crystalinum extract revealed that the digestive tubules suffered from severe cellular destructions, inflammatory infiltrate and vacoulations. In addition, sections through the ovotestis showed deformations of oocytes.